VSC-HVDC is 205% of that required for 2-Level VSC-HVDC, and 390% of that required for LCC-HVDC. The overall converter building volume required for CTL VSC-HVDC is 118% of that required for 2-Level VSC-HVDC, and 211% of that required for LCC-HVDC. The lower buildings for the CTL technology are related to a reduced internal suspension height of the HVDC converter valves. This is desirable when considering the risk The Flexible CSC is also free to control the amplitude and phase of its output ac current. So, it can control freely active power and reactive power. Use this converter to construct a new CSC-HVDC.. HVDC VSC Cross Sound Cable Project (CSC) - Background TransEnergie US (TEUS), a division of Hydro-Quebec (H-Q), was selected by the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) as the winner of their March 2000 RFP for an Off-Island Transmission Interconnection. This project was named the Cross Sound Cable (CSC). TEUS, through its Australia
VSC - HVDC Transmission Can have ground or metallic return Converter transformer (dc stress on secondary windings) Dc to ground fault cause high short circuit current affecting ac systems (worse than LCC) Uses two high voltage conductors and possibly one low voltage conductor Can be realized with half bridge or full bridge converters, in case of HB requires extra equipment for dc and ac fault. The IGBT-based Siemens HVDC PLUS is build out of self-commutated systems with indirect voltage link (voltage-sourced converters, VSC) and operates with the newest type of the Modular Multilevel-Converter (MMC), which is used in the Ultranet project, and has a transmission capacity up to 2000 MW at a voltage of ±500 kV DC A 200 MVA (+/- 100 kV DC) forced-commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC) interconnection is used to transmit power from a 230 kV, 2000 MVA, 50 Hz system to another identical AC system. The rectifier and the inverter are three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) VSC converters using close IGBT/Diodes
An HVDC converter converts electric power from high voltage alternating current (AC) to high-voltage direct current (HVDC), or vice versa. HVDC is used as an alternative to AC for transmitting electrical energy over long distances or between AC power systems of different frequencies. HVDC converters capable of converting up to two gigawatts (GW) and with voltage ratings of up to 900 kilovolts. . www.alstom.com. Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - LCC vs VSC Author. State Grid Corporation of China The Zhangbei high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission project in China is the world's first HVDC power transmission system to utilise multi-level voltage sourced converter (VSC) technology at a rated voltage of ±500kV 電圧源コンバーター (VSC) を使った高圧直流送電 (HVDC) はじめに. 自励式の半導体デバイスでは定格の増加と性能の改善が行われ、 電圧源コンバーター (VSC) に基づく高圧直流 (HVDC) 送電が可能になっています。 製造業者により提供されている主な 2 つの技術としては、HVDC Light  と HVDC plus  が.
This link ensures a secure power supply to Hokkaido by transmitting electric power, applying an HVDC system that converts AC to DC, transmitting by DC voltage and current, and converting DC to AC. This is the first VSC *1 HVDC system in Japan The new HVDC technology based on the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) is a feasible and attractive solution that can fulfil almost all above challenges due to its distinct advantages in the areas of controllability and flexibility, e.g. independent control of active and reactive power, fast control response speed, etc This model represents a 200 MVA, +/- 100 kV VSC-HVDC transmission link. The 230 kV, 2000 MVA AC systems (AC system1 and AC system2 subsystems) are modeled by damped L-R equivalents with an angle of 80 degrees at fundamental frequency (50 Hz) and at the third harmonic. The VSC converters are three-level bridge blocks using IGBT/diodes. The relative ease with which the IGBT can be controlled and. Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstrom-Übertragung dient auch der Energieübertragung über vergleichbar kurze Distanzen von einigen 10 km bis zu einigen 100 km, wenn das Übertragungskabel konstruktionsbedingt einen sehr hohen kapazitiven Belag aufweist. Ein Betrieb mit Drehstrom ist dann nicht wirtschaftlich, da dabei eine hohe Blindleistung zum ständigen Umladen der Kabelkapazität aufgebracht. So, in the case of DC transmission, HVDC PLUS with VSCs is the preferred technology for interconnection of islanded grids, such as offshore wind farms, with the power system. So far, VSCs for HVDC and FACTS applications are mostly based on two or three-level converters
terminal VSC-HVDC link, in operation since December 2013 . AC load flow depends on the angular difference between voltage vectors in various segments of the lectrical power system. e These angles are dependent on the balance of power and cannot be directly adjusted. Also, changes in power generation or load demand will cause a change in system frequency that has to be restored by altering. VSC-HVDC does not require AC system' s support from sending end, with its innate reactive and active power control capabilities, can sustain a safe and stable renewable grid connection. VSC-HVDC does not face the technical glitches relating to synchronous instability, it can integrate multiple unstable generation sources into one source, and become one stable & continuous output power source. VSC-HVDC systems involve disconnection of the faulted line via AC circuit breakers, isolating the DC system in its entirety. However, this is not a viable option for MTDC systems, due to the large transmission capacities involved, therefore it becomes necessary to quickly and reliably detect and isolate only the faulted line, thus protecting the sensitive power electronics of the converter. Abstract—High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) can be either overhead cable or submarine cable or directly in systems has been an alternative method the same location as in the case of backof transmitting electric power from one location to another with some inherent advantages over A O relatório sobre o mercado VSC-HVDC oferece estudos de pesquisa de alta qualidade, comprovados e abrangentes para equipar os jogadores com dados valiosos para a tomada de decisões de negócios bem informadas. Este estudo analisa o crescimento do mercado VSC-HVDC com base em dados passados, presentes e futuros e fornece aos participantes do mercado um conhecimento completo da indústria VSC.
In Nähe des grünen Zschonergrunds entwickelt die VSC GmbH ein besonderes Wohnareal - nur wenige Fahrminuten entfernt vom Stadtzentrum und doch mitten im Grünen. 100% verkauft! Wohnensemble Carl Immermann. Auf der Carl-Immermann-Straße in Dresden-Cotta entstehen fünf moderne Reihenhäuser auf je drei Etagen. 100% verkauft! Villa Clemens. Auf der Saarstraße in Dresden-Coschütz entsteht. Heute bietet Siemens sowohl auf Thyristoren basierte Converter - »HVDC Classic« genannt - als auch auf IGBTs basierte Converter, die »HVDC Plus«-Systeme. Beide haben ihre Vor- und Nachteile und kommen je nach Anwendungsfall zum Einsatz Gbadega P, Saha A (2018) Loss assessment of MMC-based VSC-HVDC converters using IEC 62751-1-2 Std. and component datasheet parameters. In: Proceedings of IEEE PES/IAS powerAfrica, pp 1-9 . 11. Clerici A, Paris L, Danfors P (1991) HVDC conversion of HVAC lines to provide substantial power upgrading. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 6:324-333. Article Google Scholar 12. Raju M, Subramaniam N (2015.
The principal characteristic of VSC-HVDC transmission is its ability to independently control the reactive and real power flow at each of the AC systems to which it is connected, at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). In contrast to line-commutated HVDC transmission, the polarity of the DC link voltage remains the same with the DC current being reversed to change the direction of power flow . However, recently, a new more advantageous HVDC technology based on voltage source con- verters (VSC) has emerged [1, 2]. The VSC technology utilizes gate-turn-o thyristors (GTOs) or in most industrial cases insulated gate bipolar transis- tors (IGBTs) for switching
3. HVDC stands for High Voltage Direct Current The main objective of this thesis is to perform stability and control studies in the area of VSC-HVDC systems. A major part of the investigation focuses on the development of procedures, whose aim is to understand, explain and avoid poorly-dampe VSC-Based HVDC Transmission System (Detailed Model) Open Model. This example shows a VSC-based HVDC transmission link 200 MVA (+/- 100kV). Silvano Casoria (Hydro-Quebec) Description. A 200 MVA (+/- 100 kV DC) forced-commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC) interconnection is used to transmit power from a 230 kV, 2000 MVA, 50 Hz system to another identical AC system. The rectifier and the. The main objective of this thesis is to perform stability and control studies in the area of VSC-HVDC. A major part of the investigation focuses on the explanation of poorly-damped conditions and instability that are linked to dc-side resonances This paper presents a framework of a multi-terminal HVDC transmission system and its multi-functional control strategy. The framework possesses the basic characteristics of the DC-grid and is suitable in integrating distributed power sources. The paper proposes the first architecture for a multiterminal HVDC transmission system using the VSC technology. Its control strategy offers various.
Damping Low-Frequency Oscillations Through VSC-HVdc Stations Operated as Virtual Synchronous Machines Abstract: With proper control methods, grid-connected power converters can mimic the dynamics of conventional synchronous generators (SGs), i.e., acting as virtual synchronous machines (VSMs), for improving the grid frequency stability and ensuring a smooth transition toward converter. HVDC VSC is prompted as HVDC light by ABB and as HVDC Plus by Siemens. The major components of HVDC VSC based transmission for offshore wind farms are: Converter Stations (Both offshore and Onshore) Cable pair (Polymeric extruded cables) Go back to Index ↑ HVDC VSC Converter Station. The scheme of the VSC Converter Station is shown in the figure below. The important component of the system.
Both types of dc transmission CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC are mature technologies. However, CSC-HVDC transmission is more appropriate for large power transfers. CSC-HVDC has reached dc voltage levels of 800 Vk and transmission capacities of 6400 MW. VSCs have had important technology developments in the last 15 years. romF the ±80 Vk and 50 MW rated aluesv of the system in Gotland, VSC-HVDC. pulse VSC-HVDC under AC faults on sending end of transformer are analyzed. This paper is organized in six sections. Following the introduction, Section II presents HVDC system model. Three models have been developed for 2-level VSC, 12-Pulse (CSC) Conventional HVDC & 12-Pulse VSC-HVDC. The simulation resul Der VSC unterstützt in allen Fragen und Angelegenheiten und hilft bei der Planung und Durchführung. Infos an firstname.lastname@example.org oder über 0162/9214568! -> Aktuelles . Der Verband Sächsischer Carneval e.V. (VSC) ist der Dachverband der Karnevalisten und Fastnachtler im Freistaat Sachsen. Er sieht seine Hauptaufgabe in der Unterstützung der Mitgliedsvereine bei ihrer Arbeit. Durch. Back-to-Back HVDC Systems. In back-to-back or B2B configuration, both of the converter; rectifier & the inverter is installed inside the same terminal station & they are connected Back-to-Back with each other. It connects two AC power systems together i.e. it converts AC into DC using a rectifier & then immediately converts DC into AC using an Inverter
schemes makes the VSC-HVDC transmission links more promising [11,12]. The concept of a hybrid DC circuit breaker with fault limiting capacity for VSC-HVDC transmission network is proposed in , which can rapidly isolate the fault within permissible limits of fault current. Likewise, a novel multi-terminal HVDC protection scheme based on artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) and high-frequency. VSC-FACTS-HVDC: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids | Acha, Enrique, Roncero-Sánchez, Pedro, de la Villa-Jaen, Antonio, Castro, Luis M., Kazemtabrizi. HVDC technology based on VSC technology has been an area of growing interest recently because of its suitability in forming a transmission link for transmitting bulk amount of wind power. This thesis deals with the control of VSC-HVDC. The objective of the work is to understand the control structure of the VSC-HVDC system, and establish the tuning criteria for the PI controllers of the. VSC-FACTS-HVDC: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids (English Edition) eBook: Acha, Enrique, Roncero-Sánchez, Pedro, de la Villa-Jaen, Antonio, Castro. VSC-FACTS-HVDC Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids. Acha, Enrique / Roncero-Sánchez, Pedro / de la Villa-Jaen, Antonio / Castro, Luis M. / Kazemtabrizi, Behzad. 1. Auflage April 2019 450 Seiten, Hardcover Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-119-97398-. John Wiley & Sons . Wiley Online Library. Kurzbeschreibung. This book contains the most up-to-date research on Flexible Alternating.
For VSC-HVDC links using power-synchronization control, the short-circuit ratio (SCR) of the ac system is no longer a limiting factor, but rather the load angles. The right-half plane (RHP) transmission zero of the ac Jacobian transfer matrix moves closer to the origin with larger load angles, which imposes a fundamental limitation on the achievable bandwidth of the VSC. As an example, it is. VSC-FACTS-HVDC Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids. Acha, Enrique / Roncero-Sánchez, Pedro / de la Villa-Jaen, Antonio / Castro, Luis M. / Kazemtabrizi, Behzad. 1. Edition April 2019 450 Pages, Hardcover Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-119-97398-. John Wiley & Sons . Wiley Online Library. Short Description. This book contains the most up-to-date research on Flexible Alternating. VSC-FACTS-HVDC and PMU: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids provides comprehensive coverage of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems within the context of high-voltage Smart Grids modelling and simulation. Readers are presented with an examination of the advanced computer modelling of the VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems for steady-state, optimal solutions, state estimation and transient. The VSC HVDC technology, reaching 500 kV today, addresses a number of shortcomings in the classic line-commutated thyristor HVDC converters by offering an independent reactive power control, black start capability, usage of extruded polymer cables, smaller station footprint, and the use of standard transformers [88,89].The VSC transmission technology is now in its fourth generation using a. In the past 20 years, Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-HVDC transmission systems were developed and installed in many projects, thereby adding more operational benefits to DC transmission option, such as high controllability, ability to supply weak networks, and reduced converter reactive power demand. Nevertheless, VSC-HVDC transmission suffers from the disadvantages of high losses and cost. In.
than CSC HVDC technology: The DC side of the converter behaves as a current source, which makes a power reversal at any terminal a straight-forward control set-point change. The general distinction between uniﬁed and sequential methods is also applicable to integrated AC/VSC MTDC power ﬂow algorithms, but due to the technical speciﬁcs of the VSC, the power ﬂow models of CSC and VSC. VSC-HVDC doesn't have this requirement and therefore is the right solution for a weak grid. Furthermore, VSC-HVDC can provide its own reactive power compensation to improve power system stability and power quality. VSC-HVDC also doesn't change the short circuit capacity of the existing grid and can be extended to multi-terminal system conveniently. Table 1: VSC-HVDC system parameters. HVDC VSC wird als aufgefordert HGÜ Licht von ABB und als HVDC Plus von Siemens. Die Hauptkomponenten der HGÜ-VSC-basierten Übertragung für Offshore-Windparks sind: Konverterstationen (Offshore und Onshore) Kabelpaar (polymere extrudierte Kabel) Gehen Sie zurück zu Index ↑ HVDC VSC Converter Station. Das Schema der VSC Converter Station ist in der folgenden Abbildung dargestellt. Die. Keywords: High Voltage Direct Current transmission (HVDC), Multi-terminal HVDC, Voltage Source Converter (CSC), Voltage Source Converter (VSC) 1. Introduction Initially one of the reasons AC systems displaced DC was because transformers allowed efficient conveyance of electricity by increasing the voltage for transmission and reducing the voltage to a level needed for utilization. Regardless.
HVDC - CSC - VSC - Topology - Modelling - Control - Multi-terminal - Hybrid - Segment - DC grid . 21, rue d'Artois, F-75008 PARIS BOLOGNA 2011. http : //www.cigre.org . 1 1. Introduction The traditional electric power system based on 3-phase ac transmission technology in general functions well and with good levels of availability and reliability. There are however. . The equipment technology session leads on to the case study workshop focusing on a practical project example. Coming immediately after our HVDC converter training, this technologies course. Voltage source converter (VSC)-based multiterminal high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems received widespread attention throughout the world for grid integration of renewable energy resources in recent years. This paper presents a comparative performance analysis of different VSC-based outer control and inner current controllers for the multiterminal HVDC system Hybrid CSC-based HVDC combined with VSC-based STATCOM . use of the dc CBs is feasible if a number of breakers are con- nected in series. Series connection of the dc breakers implies that all breakers should commutate simultaneously. Any time (see Fig. 12), and the FC converter (see Fig. 13), were com- delays or breaker mismatching will result in breaker failure. pared for the HVdc system.
Contrary to the thyristors used in CSC HVDC technology, the IGBTs in the VSC converters are self-commutated and do not rely on the AC system for commutation. It is therefore possible to connect the VSC converters to existing networks or to start up a remote grid, e.g. in a wind farm, whereas CSC HVDC can only be connected to strong AC networks or need an external voltage source for communication when a connection to a wind farm is considered. The VSC converters synthesize an AC. The VSC based HVDC transmission system mainly consists of two converter stations connected by a dc cable. This paper presents the modelling and control design of VSC based HVDC which uses twelve pulse three level converter topology. The reactive current injected by individual VSCs can be maintained constant or controlled to regulate converter bus voltage constant. While one VSC regulates the. Converter (CSC) technology. VSC-HVDC technology is suitable for multi-terminal system arrangements but several issues need to be investigated before this becomes reality. While the development of large multi-terminal VSC-HVDC depends on the functionality of a fast and reliable DC breaker, such component may not be indispensable for the development of smaller systems. Nevertheless, concerns. Converter High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) transmission. Multi-terminal-HVDC (M-HVDC) can be built using VSC technology. A model of a three-terminal VSC-HVDC system is presented in this thesis. One of the converters is used to regulate the DC voltage while the others converters control the active power independently and bi-directionally. The vector control strategy and pulse widt
CSC/VSC HVDC systems for the damping of low-frequency electromechanical modes of oscillations which are inherent in large interconnected power systems. Subspace-based, MIMO system identification is used to estimate and validate linearised state-space models through pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) probing in DIgSILENT. The impact of both current source converter (CSC) and voltage source. VSC-HVDC system-based on model predictive control integrated with offshore wind farms Yara A. Sultan Sahar S. Kaddah Abdelfattah A. Eladl Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Correspondence YaraA.Sultan,DepartmentofElectricalEngineer-ing,FacultyofEngineering,MansouraUniversity, Mansoura,Egypt. Email:email@example.com Abstract. Recently, the offshore wind farms (OWFs) have excellent potential in global power networks. So, the demand for high power and high‐quality transmission system is becoming more pressing with the fast. HVDC-VSC: transmission technology of the future A new hybrid HVDC circuit technology using voltage source converters is only half the size of conventional designs, but still keeps losses low - a big advantage for urban areas, offshore wind farms and other tight spaces. makes smaller HVDC systems economical. These may be installed in existing AC grids to stabilise power ﬂ ow without the.
VSC-HVDC 500: 16: 40: 51 1000: 28: 90: 110 1500: 40: 120: 153 Coût des lignes de transport (en millions d'euros par kilomètre) Puissance (MW) HVAC HVDC Câble Lignes aériennes Câble Lignes aériennes 500: 0,92: 0,35: 0,8: 0,26 1000: 1,67: 0,33: 1,6: 0,25 1500: 1,67: 0,45: 2,4: 0,34 La même brochure prend l'exemple d'une ligne aérienne d'une longueur de 190 km. Dans cet exemple le prix. RXHK Awarded World's Largest VSC HVDC Converter Contract On 30th August 2018 China Southern Grid announced the contracts it had awarded to build the hybrid HVDC scheme to link the WuDongDe hydro-electric power plant in Yunnan province to the load centres in Guangdong province Terminologi for VSC-omformere til HVDC-systemer Terminology for voltage -sourced converters (VSC) for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems . DS/EN 62747 . København . DS projekt: M273291 . ICS: 29.200; 29.240 . Første del af denne publikations betegnelse er: DS/EN, hvilket betyder, at det er en europæisk standard, der har status som dansk standard. Denne publikations overensstemmelse. HVDC- und FACTS-Stromverteilersysteme erfordern eine verbesserte Flexibilität und Fernübertragung, die durch Mersen-Lösungen für Power Management ermöglicht werden. Elektrischer Schutz Mersen bietet ein vollständiges Sortiment an superflinken Hochleistungssicherungen zum Schutz von IGBT-Modulen und Hilfskreisen in VSC-MMC-Wandlern. Wärmemanagement. Das Wasserkühlsystem von Mersen dient. . Up until recently multi-terminal systems were not attractive for renewable energy interconnects or for energy distribution, but nowadays their use is being explored. During the 20 th century, HVDC.
Since Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) technology has been introduced to High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) there has been a tendency to think of an inverter (the receiving terminal) as a source of generation within the AC power system to which it is connected For VSC-HVDC applications it is believed that the transient current components are more applicable as the DC capacitors form the fundamental boundaries of the DC transmission [20, 21]. However, in order to offer a better insight into the fault response, maximum values of du=dt are also included in Table 4 (but not shown in ﬁgures due to space limitations). Parameter Value DC Line Resistance. This memo outlines the proposed simple VSC-HVDC dynamic model, the last of the tasks. It should be noted that this is a simple generic model for high-level stability studies and is NOT specific to any vendor, nor claims to have detailed vendor specific controls. Furthermore, the simple model presented here is intended for us e in modeling point-to-point (not multi-terminal) VSC-HVDC that. CSC/VSC HVDC device installed in an Australian equivalent system. 4) Modal analysis substantiated by non-linear simulations in DIgSILENT PowerFactory to validate the ﬁndings. II. HVDC CONTROLLERMODELING A. HVDC Technologies The two main HVDC transmission technologies currently in operation are the current source converter (CSC) and the more modernvoltage source converter(VSC). With the.
HVDC es una opción tecnológica para transmitir potencia eléctrica. Usa electrónica de potencia y control digital en convertidores CA/CC/CA. Existen dos tecnologías: LCC que usa tiristores y VSC que usa IGBT. La capacidad de transporte no depende de la longitud del enlace Sistema AC 1 Sistema AC 2 LCC/VSC convertidor AC<=>C VSC-HVDC technology combines power converters, based on IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors), with dc links to transmit power in the order of thousands of megawatts. In addition to controlling power flow between two ac networks, VSC-HVDC systems can supply weak and even passive networks. VSC-HVDC systems present a faster dynamic response thanks to its Pulse-width Modulation (PWM) control. El Informe de investigación del mercado global VSC-HVDC 2021-2025 es una descripción histórica y un estudio en profundidad sobre el mercado actual y futuro de la industria VSC-HVDC. El informe representa una descripción general básica del tamaño del mercado, la participación y el segmento competidor de VSC-HVDC con una introducción básica de los proveedores clave, las principales regiones, los tipos de productos y las industrias finales. Este informe brinda una descripción general. In dieser Arbeit wird ein erweitertes Regelkonzept für eingebettete VSC-HVDC-Leitungen mit dem Fokus auf die Stützung des parallelen AC-Systems nach Störungen wie Leitungs- und Generatorausfällen vorgestellt. Die Betriebsziele der Regelung bestehen einerseits darin, die direkten Auswirkungen der Störung auf das AC-System zu minimieren, und andererseits in der Sicherstellung einer.
CSC Current Source Converter CWT Continuous Wavelet Transform FastICA Fast Independent Component Analysis GPS Global Positioning System GTO Gate Turn-off HVDC High Voltage Direct Current IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor MTDC Multi-terminal HVDC PLL Line Commutated Converter PLL Phased-LockedLoop PWM Pulse-WidthModulation VSC Voltage Source Converter WT Wavelet Transform. iii Lista de. Multiple suppliers are involved: three different VSC HVDC valve suppliers for three converter terminals, two different XLPE (Cross Link Poly Ethylene) HVDC land/sea cable suppliers and three different control & protection system/equipment suppliers. All of them are Chinese domestic manufacturers. DNV GL and SEPRI successfully formed a mutual co-operation band once again through this world. MODÉLISATION ET SIMULATION D'UNE LIAISON HVDC DE TYPE VSC-MMC présentée par : SAAD Hani Aziz en vue de l'obtention du diplôme de : Philosophiae Doctor a été dûment accepté par le jury d'examen constitué de : M. KARIMI Houshang , Ph. D., président M. MAHSEREDJIAN Jean , Ph. D., directeur de recherche M. GUILLAUD Xavier , Ph. D., codirecteur de recherche M. KOCAR Ilhan , Ph. D. MMC-HVDC 这种东西 首发于 高压 这个词，总给人以想走捷径快速理解知识的感觉）？我们从最底层分析下电压源换流器（VSC）和电流源换流器（CSC）也就是 LCC 的区别，可以从电流源逆变器和电压源逆变器的角度来看。 一、LCC (line-commutated converter) 或 CSC (current source converter) (1）电流源逆变器. 图 1. In Europe, large offshore wind farms are installed in the North Sea area using modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. Voltage source converter - high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) technology has proved to be a promising solution for offshore wind power grid access. The importance of grid impact studies of wind power integration rises with the rapid increase in the installed wind power capacity